NORTON META TAG

15 September 2014

(VIDEO) Ten things to tell your friends about an independent Scotland & Stay U.K. or go Scot free? Scotland weighs independence & (VIDEO) Groundskeeper Willie's Views On Scottish Independence | THE SIMPSONS | ANIMATION on FOX 15&12SEP14

BRITAIN-SCOTLAND-INDEPENDENCE-VOTE
IT'S already 16 SEP 14 in Scotland so two days till the vote for INDEPENDENCE AND A FREE SCOTLAND! Here is another video from the YES SCOTLAND campaign and a  report from the +PBS NewsHour on the YES SCOTLAND and no campaigns.....

Ten things to tell your friends about an independent Scotland



Stay U.K. or go Scot free? Scotland weighs independence

September 15, 2014 at 6:25 PM EDT
Scots are posed to decide whether to stay in a 307-year union with England or strike out on their own. The latest polls show a Scottish referendum on independence could go either way. From London and the British Houses of Parliament, there have been pleas to stay and warnings to choose carefully. Jeffrey Brown reports.

TRANSCRIPT

GWEN IFILL: Yes for independence, no to stay part of the United Kingdom, that’s the decision facing voters in Scotland when they go to the polls on Thursday for a referendum that will test three centuries of history.Yesterday, in her first comments on the issue, Queen Elizabeth said Scots should — quote — “think very carefully about the future.”
The latest polls released this weekend show the vote could go either way. Prime Minister David Cameron made one last visit north today in an appeal to keep the union intact.
Jeffrey Brown takes a closer look at what’s motivating the votes to stay and the votes to go.
JEFFREY BROWN: It’s the season for highland games, Scottish dancing, caber tossing, hammer throwing, and tug of war, where the Scots put their brawn, bravado and national pride on display.
And it comes as the Scottish people are having a political tug of war of their own, whether to stay in a 307-year-old union with England or strike out on their own. From high streets to football pitches, the choice is captivating and dividing Scotland virtually down the middle.
WOMAN: I believe that Scotland is going to be more sustainable in terms of businesses and local tourism, and our education will be stronger if we stay part of the U.K.
MAN: I’m going to vote yes because I’m fairly tired of being governed by a conservative government which as a country have not elected.
JEFFREY BROWN: The campaign for full independence has been in the works for years. Some even say it began in 1707, when the Acts of Union creating Great Britain were signed. Since 1999, Scotland has had its own parliament in Edinburgh, separate from Westminster in London.
That came after a British decision led by a Labor government at the time to let regions govern themselves on issues like health, education, transportation, and law and order.
But for Alex Salmond, the Scottish first minister and leader of the Scottish National Party, those powers are not enough.
ALEX SALMOND, First Minister of Scotland: It’s an opportunity not just of a lifetime. It’s an opportunity of the centuries. And I believe in my heart that people will grasp that opportunity.
JEFFREY BROWN: The no-side, known as Better Together or No Thanks, believes Scotland gains more by sticking with the United Kingdom. It’s led by Alistair Darling, a former U.K. treasury secretary.
ALISTAIR DARLING, Leader, Better Together campaign: We can have a better future, a much stronger Scottish parliament within the security and opportunities that come from being part of something bigger. And I’m confident that’s what the majority of people of Scotland will say when they go to the polls on Thursday.
JEFFREY BROWN: The pair debated each other twice publicly, and one of the issues that loomed large was the question of currency. The yes campaign vows it will keep the British pound, despite insistence from the three main political parties in Westminster that’s impossible.
Scotland’s economy has shifted over the past 40 years as it went through deindustrialization and Scots turned to a service-oriented economy, now the largest sector. What happens to the economy, including revenues from North Sea oil and gas, is a major flash point for the two campaigns, with questions over how much oil revenue an independent Scotland would actually get and disputes over how much oil is left.
From London and the Houses of Parliament at Westminster, there have been pleas to stay and warnings to choose carefully.

British Prime Minister David Cameron traveled north for a last-minute visit.
DAVID CAMERON, Prime Minister, United Kingdom: This is a decision that could break up our family of nations and rip Scotland from the rest of the United Kingdom.
And we must be very clear. There is no going back from this, no rerun. This is a once-and-for-all decision. If Scotland votes yes, the U.K. will split, and we will go our separate ways forever.
JEFFREY BROWN: An 11th hour promise of Westminster for more powers for Scotland in exchange for no-votes was called — quote — “panicked, phony and measly” by the yes campaign.
Five hundred miles north of London sits the picturesque county of Perthshire, straddling the highlands and the lowlands of Scotland.
Jewelry maker Sally Broughton calls it home. She’s a staunch yes supporter and, like the majority of Scots, has never voted for a conservative British government.
SALLY BROUGHTON: For the time, with the referendum vote, what I vote is going to make a difference. And that’s such an important thing. My son is 17. He’s just about to vote for the first time. He’s been given a vote, which is a great opportunity for them. And he’s actually going to make a difference. His voice is going to be heard.
And that will be a new experience for him, but it will also be a new experience for me, the idea that my voice is actually going to be heard.
JEFFREY BROWN: Broughton’s son Truro can vote in this referendum because the age was lowered to include any E.U. or commonwealth citizen living in Scotland over the age of 16.
Truro is voting yes.
TRURO BROUGHTON-STUART: I just think it’s the way forward. For our country to become independent gives it its — gives it the ability to look after itself and govern itself. And I think that’s really the way forward for — well, the world as a whole, I think, really. Every little country should all be on its own, doing its own thing.
JEFFREY BROWN: But, for Rory MacDonald, a third-generation butcher in the town of Pitlochry, carving up the United Kingdom raises too many questions for his business that he says the independence campaign hasn’t been able to answer.
RORY MACDONALD: But nobody has confirmed to me that my business will be secure. If anything, I have heard stories of how, when we’re — if we were to be outside of the U.K. and therefore outside of Europe, which is another uncertainty, whether we’re in or out, then it would be very difficult trading — circumstances for any business to trade south of the border, because we’re no longer British-made. We’re not longer U.K., made in the U.K. We’re made in a foreign country.
And who knows what sort of trading terms there will be between us and the rest of the Europe, never mind just England and Wales.
JEFFREY BROWN: Helen McDade, another Pitlochry resident and no-voter, says she thinks people in her camp are keeping their decisions quiet because of a certain level of intimidation.
HELEN MCDADE: I know of people who have been told in the public, you’re a traitor to Scotland because you’re not going to vote for this by people who he regarded as friends. And he was appalled.
Now, that might not be common, but it doesn’t have to be common for you to feel, well, this is the community I’m in, and I don’t expect that. So, I think there is an issue about how we all move on after the referendum, whatever happens.
JEFFREY BROWN: Leading Scottish historian Sir Tom Devine says the idea of Scottishness has waxed and waned over the years, but is at its strongest now.
SIR TOM DEVINE, Author, “The Scottish Nation”: What we’re talking about is the dual identity, the hybrid identity of Scottishness and Britishness.
In the late 18th century, some thinkers thought that Scotland was going to become North Britain and would lose its ancient identity. That didn’t happen. Instead, there emerged this mix of Scottishness and Britishness, which exists to this day. And — but the pendulum swung over time.
For example, during the Second World War and thereafter, Britishness was at its peak. But Scottishness didn’t disappear. Scots still had a very strong identity.
JEFFREY BROWN: Devine himself recently switched from being a no-vote to a yes, because he believes the union needs fundamental reform.
If the independence vote wins, he says, the historical implications are huge.
SIR TOM DEVINE: I mean, it will be a tumultuous and it will be a cataclysmic event in Britain, the most significant for the last three-and-a-half centuries by far.
And, definitely, there will be a bedding down period. There will be turbulence. But I believe, in the long run, it will be better for the relationship between the two countries, England and Scotland.
JEFFREY BROWN: Meanwhile, from England, there have been pleas to stay from regular citizens.
WOMAN: I think that the two countries effectively are far more than the sum of their parts. And I think that an alliance is essential, and that’s what we should be focused on.
MAN: I quite like the union. I quite like the idea of Scotland being part of it.
JEFFREY BROWN: Hill livestock farmer Jim Fairlie, a lifelong Scottish nationalist, has this message for England.
JIM FAIRLIE: This is not us wanting to be anti-English, as about us saying, in a way, OK, listen, Scotland, this is what we have. This is who we are. This is what we have done. Why do we allow another country to make the big decisions about how we go forward from here?
JEFFREY BROWN: On Thursday, the decision is up to Scotland’s four million registered voters, who have one deceptively simple easy question to answer:  Should Scotland be an independent country, yes or no?
Your cheat sheet to the Scotland independence vote  

Willie's Views On Scottish Independence | THE SIMPSONS | ANIMATION on FOX


The atheist libertarian lie: Ayn Rand, income inequality and the fantasy of the “free market” & Paul Krugman decries the “enormous intellectual failure” of modern economics 14&15SEP14

A well written piece exposing more of the hypocrisy of rand paul, ayn rand, atheist libertarians, followed by a great Paul Krugman article on the failure of modern economies. From +Salon .....


The atheist libertarian lie: Ayn Rand, income inequality and the fantasy of the “free market”

Atheist libertarians pose as skeptics -- except when it comes to free markets and the nature of corporate power


The atheist libertarian lie: Ayn Rand, income inequality and the fantasy of the "free market"Rand Paul, Ayn Rand, Richard Dawkins (Credit: AP/Timothy D. Easley/Reuters/Chris Keane)
Why atheists are disproportionately drawn to libertarianism is a question that many liberal atheists have trouble grasping.  To believe that markets operate and exist in a state of nature is, in itself, to believe in the supernatural. The very thing atheists have spent their lives fleeing from.
According to the American Values Survey, a mere 7 percent of Americans identify as “consistently libertarian.” Compared to the general population, libertarians are significantly more likely to be white (94 percent), young (62 percent under 50) and male (68 percent). You know, almost identical to the demographic makeup of atheists – white (95 percent), young (65 percent under 50) and male (67 percent). So there’s your first clue.
Your second clue is that atheist libertarians are skeptical of government authority in the same way they’re skeptical of religion. In their mind, the state and the pope are interchangeable, which partly explains the libertarian atheist’s guttural gag reflex to what they perceive as government interference with the natural order of things, especially “free markets.”
Robert Reich says that one of the most deceptive ideas embraced by the Ayn Rand-inspired libertarian movement is that the free market is natural, and exists outside and beyond government. In other words, the “free market” is a constructed supernatural myth.
There is much to cover here, but a jumping-off point is the fact that corporations are a government construct, and that fact alone refutes any case for economic libertarianism. Corporations, which are designed to protect shareholders insofar as mitigating risk beyond the amount of their investment, are created and maintained only via government action.  “Statutes, passed by the government, allow for the creation of corporations, and anyone wishing to form one must fill out the necessary government paperwork and utilize the apparatus of the state in numerous ways. Thus, the corporate entity is by definition a government-created obstruction to the free marketplace, so the entire concept should be appalling to libertarians,” says David Niose, an atheist and legal director of the American Humanist Association.
In the 18th century, Adam Smith, the granddaddy of American free-market capitalism, wrote his economic tome “The Wealth of Nations.” But his book has as much relevance to modern mega-corporation hyper-capitalism today as the Old Testament has to morality in the 21st century.


Reich says rules that define the playing field of today’s capitalism don’t exist in nature; they are human creations. Governments don’t “intrude” on free markets; governments organize and maintain them. Markets aren’t “free” of rules; the rules define them. “In reality, the ‘free market’ is a bunch of rules about 1) what can be owned and traded (the genome? slaves? nuclear materials? babies? votes?); 2) on what terms (equal access to the Internet? the right to organize unions? corporate monopolies? the length of patent protections?); 3) under what conditions (poisonous drugs? unsafe foods? deceptive Ponzi schemes? uninsured derivatives? dangerous workplaces?); 4) what’s private and what’s public (police? roads? clean air and clean water? healthcare? good schools? parks and playgrounds?); 5) how to pay for what (taxes, user fees, individual pricing?). And so on.”
Atheists are skeptics, but atheist libertarians evidently check their skepticism at the door when it comes to corporate power and the self-regulatory willingness of corporations to act in the interests of the common good. In the mind of an atheist libertarian, both religion and government is bad, but corporations are saintly. On what planet, where? Corporations exist for one purpose only: to derive maximum profit for their shareholders. “The corporation’s legally defined mandate is to pursue, relentlessly and without exception, its own self-interest, regardless of the often harmful consequences it might cause others,” writes Joel Bakan, author of “The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power.”
Corporations pollute, lie, steal, oppress, manipulate and deceive, all in the name of maximizing profit. Corporations have no interest for the common good. You really believe Big Tobacco wouldn’t sell cigarettes to 10-year-olds if government didn’t prohibit it? Do you really think Big Oil wouldn’t discharge more poisons and environmentally harmful waste into the atmosphere if government regulations didn’t restrict it? Do you really believe Wal-Mart wouldn’t pay its workers less than the current minimum wage if the federal government didn’t prohibit it? If you answered yes to any of the above, you may be an atheist libertarian in desperate need of Jesus.
That awkward pause that inevitably follows asking a libertarian how it is that unrestricted corporate power, particularly for Big Oil, helps solve our existential crisis, climate change, is always enjoyable. “Corporations will harm you, or even kill you, if it is profitable to do so and they can get away with it … recall the infamous case of the Ford Pinto, where in the 1970s the automaker did a cost-benefit analysis and decided not to remedy a defective gas tank design because doing so would be more expensive than simply allowing the inevitable deaths and injuries to occur and then paying the anticipated settlements,” warns Niose.
In the 1970s, consumer protection advocate Ralph Nader became famous for helping protect car owners from the unsafe practices of the auto industry. Corporate America, in turn, went out of its way in a coordinated effort, led by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell, to destroy Nader. The documentary “Unreasonable Man” demonstrates how corporate CEOs of America’s biggest corporations had Nader followed in an attempt to discredit and blackmail him. General Motors went so far as to send an attractive lady to his local supermarket in an effort to meet him, and seduce him. That’s how much corporate America was fearful of having to implement pesky and costly measures designed to protect the well-being of their customers.
Today America is facing its greatest moral crisis since the civil rights movement, and its greatest economic crisis since the Great Depression: income inequality. Now, income inequality doesn’t happen by accident. It happens by the political choices a country makes. Today America is the most income unequal among all developed nations, and we find ourselves here today not because of government regulation or interference, but a lack thereof. The past three decades have seen our political class become totally beholden to the armies of corporate lobbyists who fund the political campaigns of our elected officials. Today the bottom 99 percent of income earners has no influence on domestic policy whatsoever.
The unilateral control that Wall Street and mega-corporations have over economic policy is now extreme, and our corporate overlords have seen to the greatest transfer of wealth from the middle class to the rich in U.S. history, while corporations contribute their lowest share of total federal tax revenue ever. The destruction of labor; serf-level minimum wage; and the deregulation, monopolization and privatization of public assets have pushed us deeper into becoming a winner-takes-all society.
In effect, America virtually exists as a libertarian state, certainly when compared to liberal democracies found in Western Europe, Canada and Australia. In these countries, there’s a sense of “we are all in this together,” but here the romantic idealism of the rugged individual allows corporate influence of the political class to gut public safety nets, eradicate collective bargaining, strip regulatory control of our banks, water, skies and our food.
By every measure, Australians, Scandinavians, Canadians, Germans and the Dutch are happier and more economically secure. The U.N. World Development Fund, the U.N. World Happiness Index and the Social Progress Index contain the empirical evidence atheist libertarians  should seek, and the results are conclusive: People are happier, healthier and more socially mobile where the size of the state is bigger, and taxes and regulations on corporations are greater. You know, the opposite of the libertarian dream that would turn America into a deeper nightmare.
CJ Werleman is the author of "Crucifying America" and "God Hates You. Hate Him Back." You can follow him on Twitter:  @cjwerleman

Paul Krugman decries the “enormous intellectual failure” of modern economics

The economist and Times columnist says his field has suffered from believing in "an idealized vision of capitalism"


  • Paul Krugman decries the "enormous intellectual failure" of modern economicsPaul Krugman (Credit: Reuters/Brendan Mcdermid)
In his latest column for the New York Times, award-winning economist and liberal pundit Paul Krugman returns to one of his recurring themes and tries to understand how the field of economics could not only fail to predict the economic catastrophe of 2008, but fail to ensure policymakers in the West responded to it with pro-growth, countercyclical spending. “[I]t’s important to realize that the enormous intellectual failure of recent years took place at several levels,” Krugman writes. “In what sense did economics go astray?”
One of the first places to look, Krugman argues, is at the field’s recent deification of free-market economics and the “neoclassical models” that support its proponents. “[I]dealized models have a useful role to play in economics,” Krugman grants. “But starting in the 1980s it became harder and harder to publish anything questioning these idealized models in major journals.” The problem, Krugman says, is that “assuming away irrationality and market failure,” as neoclassical models did and do, “meant assuming away the very possibility of the kind of catastrophe that overtook the developed world six years ago.”
Despite these mistakes, Krugman says, the truth is that while most economists did not predict the crash, most have subsequently responded by promoting the correct Keynesian response. It’s just that policymakers haven’t been listening. “If you imagine that policy makers have spent the past five or six years in thrall to economic orthodoxy, you’ve been misled,” Krugman deadpans. “On the contrary, key decision makers have been highly receptive to innovative, unorthodox economic ideas — ideas that also happen to be wrong but which offered excuses to do what these decision makers wanted to do anyway.”
Indeed, instead of putting the lion’s share of the blame on the shoulders of economics in general or famous, mostly right-wing economists in particular, Krugman says we would do best to look at our political leaders. Their justifications for their policy decisions may shift, he writes, but their overall goal is crystal clear:


The great majority of policy-oriented economists believe that increasing government spending in a depressed economy creates jobs, and that slashing it destroys jobs — but European leaders and U.S. Republicans decided to believe the handful of economists asserting the opposite. Neither theory nor history justifies panic over current levels of government debt, but politicians decided to panic anyway, citing unvetted (and, it turned out, flawed) research as justification.
I’m not saying either that economics is in good shape or that its flaws don’t matter. It isn’t, they do, and I’m all for rethinking and reforming a field.
The big problem with economic policy is not, however, that conventional economics doesn’t tell us what to do. In fact, the world would be in much better shape than it is if real-world policy had reflected the lessons of Econ 101. If we’ve made a hash of things — and we have — the fault lies not in our textbooks, but in ourselves.
Elias Isquith Elias Isquith is an assistant editor at Salon, focusing on politics. Follow him on Twitter at @eliasisquith, and email him at eisquith@salon.com.
 

The last honest conservative: Meet the brilliant Ronald Reagan appointee making Antonin Scalia’s life very difficult 2SEP14

WHO knew? Thank God there are some well placed judges who understand justice is not determined by the masses. From +Salon .....

The last honest conservative: Meet the brilliant Ronald Reagan appointee making Antonin Scalia’s life very difficult

On three high-profile cases bound for the Supreme Court, Judge Richard Posner has seen through right-wing blather

The last honest conservative: Meet the brilliant Ronald Reagan appointee making Antonin Scalia's life very difficult Richard Posner, Antonin Scalia (Credit: Reuters/John Gress/Brendan Mcdermid)
Judge Richard Posner has written nearly 40 books, hundreds of articles and thousands of judicial opinions. He is, by far, the most cited legal scholar alive today (probably ever). Nominated by Ronald Reagan, he sits on the United States Court of Appeals, just below the Supreme Court. He has publicly feuded with Justice Antonin Scalia over how judges actually decide, and should decide, cases. And, over the last year, he has spoken truth to power in three high-profile cases all likely to be decided by the Supreme Court.
On issues of abortion, same-sex marriage and religious objections to Obamacare, Posner said exactly what needed to be said with honest, unequivocal and, to some perhaps, startling clarity.
The University of Notre Dame didn’t want to provide certain forms of required contraception to its students and employees so it went to court seeking a religious exemption. The bizarre thing about the case is Notre Dame was already exempt. What it wanted was not to fill out the form that would have guaranteed the university an exemption. Notre Dame claimed, to most people’s disbelief, that filling out the short form and asking for the exemption was itself a substantial burden on its religious exercise.
Posner would have none of it. At the oral argument, he took a harsh tone with the lawyer for Notre Dame who refused again and again to answer directly how filling out a piece of paper could possibly be a “substantial burden on religion.” Becoming more and more frustrated, Posner eventually asked the lawyer to “stop babbling,” and “stop fencing,” eventually warning him that “if you don’t cooperate with me, I’m not going to let you continue your argument.” The judge’s frustration stemmed from his perception that Notre Dame’s claims had no merit, and the lawyer was simply bobbing and weaving.


Eventually, Notre Dame lost (the court of appeals uses three-judge panels) and the final opinion written by Posner said this: “The novelty of Notre Dame’s claim–not for the exemption, which it has, but for the right to have it without having to ask for it–deserves emphasis … What makes this case and others like it involving the contraception exemption paradoxical and virtually unprecedented is that the beneficiaries of the religious exemption are claiming that the exemption process itself imposes a substantial burden on their religious faiths … The process of claiming one’s exemption … is the opposite of cumbersome.  It amounts to signing one’s name and mailing the signed form to two addresses.”
From the oral argument through the decision, Posner seemed shocked at the idea that Notre Dame would challenge an exemption given to it by the federal government on the basis that it, gasp, had to ask for it. He couldn’t be more right.
A few months later, Posner, again along with two other judges, reviewed the validity of a brand-new Wisconsin law requiring doctors who perform abortions to have admitting privileges at nearby hospitals. The law, if valid, would make it much more difficult for clinics in Wisconsin to provide abortion services because, of the four clinics in the entire state that perform abortions, two would have been shut down.  Although the case came to the court on a preliminary motion (an emergency stay had been granted by the lower court), Posner took the opportunity to demonstrate why he thought the plaintiffs would eventually prevail.
In affirming the stay, Posner noted that “no documentation of medical need for such an admitting privileges requirement was presented to the Wisconsin legislature when the bill that became the law was introduced.” He also noted that no “other procedure performed outside a hospital, even one as invasive as a surgical abortion (such as a colonoscopy) …  and even if performed when the patient is under general anesthesia … is required by Wisconsin law to be performed by doctors who have admitting privileges at hospitals within a specified, or indeed any, radius of the clinic at which the procedure is performed.”  Posner added that the risks of colonoscopies are three to six times greater than the risks of abortions (yet doctors can perform them in outpatient centers without having admitting privileges), and that, based on a report by the state, out of 1,192 abortions that were reported, there were only 16 complications, a rate of less than 1 percent.
Throughout the opinion, Posner implied, though didn’t go as far as to conclude, that the obvious purpose of the law was not to further women’s health but simply to make abortions more difficult to obtain. For example, on the issue of the timing of the law, he said “it has been 40 years since Roe v. Wade … was decided, legalizing (most) abortion throughout the United States, and it could not have taken the State of Wisconsin all this time to discover the supposed hazards of abortions performed by doctors who do not have admitting privileges at a nearby hospital.”
Posner saw through the litigation and the alleged health benefits of the admitting privileges law. His opinion will make it virtually impossible for Wisconsin to win this case if and when it returns for a final disposition, and rightfully so.
Finally, Posner was recently one of three judges to hear oral argument in a lawsuit challenging Wisconsin and Indiana’s ban on same-sex marriage. Although the case has not yet been decided, there is no question how Posner will vote. When the lawyer for Wisconsin justified the ban based on “tradition,” Posner responded by saying “It was tradition to not allow blacks and whites to marry — a tradition that got swept away.” He also said the ban stems from “a tradition of hate … and savage discrimination” against same-sex couples.
During the argument, the state argued that the purpose of the ban had something (ill-defined) to do with procreation and biology. Posner responded, “It’s arbitrary. You’re allowing all these sterile people to get married. Why are you doing that if you’re so concerned with procreation? Why do you let them?”
Posner also asked the state’s lawyer about the harm to children of same-sex couples denied benefits that children of opposite-sex couples receive and further chided the lawyer by saying that “You are concerned with the unfortunate children produced by accidental births … many of these (unintended children) are adopted by same-sex couples, and these children will be better off if their parents can marry, no? Isn’t that obvious?”
Posner thought it was “obvious” that filling out a form cannot possibly be a substantial burden on religion, that the state of Wisconsin and Indiana didn’t care one bit about women’s health when it decided to require doctors who perform abortions to have admitting privileges at hospitals, and that bans on same-sex marriage have little to do with permissible concerns Wisconsin may have about marriage and children and everything to do with unlawful and arbitrary discrimination. As a matter of law he is right about all three cases. As a matter of politics, we will have to wait until the Supreme Court decides to have our final answers.
Eric Segall is the Kathy & Lawrence Ashe Professor of Law at Georgia State University College of Law. He is the author of "Supreme Myths: Why the Supreme Court Is Not a Court and Its Justices are Not Judges" and has written numerous law review articles on constitutional law and other legal topics. He appears regularly on "StandUp With Pete Dominic" on XM Radio and tweets at @espinsegall.

Listen: Dr. Maya Angelou Recites Her Poem "Phenomenal Woman" 12MAI13

I am so thankful we had Maya Angelou with us, I just wish she had been with us a little longer....

Listen: Dr. Maya Angelou Recites Her Poem "Phenomenal Woman" 



Bills never trail in workmanlike 29-10 win over Dolphins & Wilson trust reaches definitive agreement with Pegula family & 10 things you may not know about the Bills-Dolphins rivalry14&9&11SEP14

FOOTBALL IS BACK and the BUFFALO BILLS are rocking with 2 wins to start this season and very good news about the sale of the team. Click the article headers to go to the page to view the video highlights. From the +Buffalo Bills .....

Bills never trail in workmanlike 29-10 win over Dolphins

Posted 1 hour ago

Buffalo turned in a near-perfect performance in a 19-point win over Miami.


Final Score: Bills 29 – Dolphins 10 Location: Ralph Wilson Stadium, Orchard Park, NY
W-L records: Buffalo (2-0); Miami (1-1)
In a Nutshell:
On a day when Bills’ founder and Hall of Fame owner Ralph Wilson’s name was rededicated in gold on the Wall of Fame, Buffalo turned in a performance that was near letter perfect in a 19-point win over Miami.
The Bills couldn’t find the end zone early, but it didn’t matter as Buffalo’s stifled the Miami offense in the first half and the offense posted field goals on three of their first four possessions for a 9-0 lead at the half. Miami’s offense had trouble finding traction in the first half as their first five possessions went nowhere with the Dolphins going 0-for-5 on third down.
It wasn’t until the first drive of the second half that Miami put points on the board thanks to a 34-yard field goal by Caleb Sturgis (9-3).
But Buffalo’s kick return unit then busted a big play as C.J. Spiller with some help from his blockers went 102 yards for a touchdown to put the Bills up by 13 (16-3). Though the Dolphins responded with a touchdown drive of their own to make 16-10 midway through the third quarter, it was as close as they would come.
The Bills scored the last 13 points of the game with Sammy Watkins scoring his first touchdown as a Bill on a 12-yard catch and run (23-10), and Dan Carpenter capped the scoring with his fourth and fifth field goals of the day to cap the scoring in the fourth quarter (29-10) giving the Bills a 2-0 start to the season for the first time since 2011.
How it went down:
--After punting away their opening possession the Bills went on a 10-play drive that stalled in the red zone. It led to a short 27-yard field goal by Dan Carpenter with four minutes left in the opening quarter
--Buffalo staged another field goal drive before the first quarter was over. Following a blocked punt by Boobie Dixon, the Bills had a drive start at the Miami 31. Scott Chandler’s 22-yard catch setting up 1st-and-goal, but again the drive could not find the end zone. Carpenter again hit from 27 yards away (6-0).
--A third straight field goal drive gave Buffalo a nine-point lead as Carpenter hit from 31 yards out to cap a six-play 40-yard drive with 10 minutes left in the half.


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--Miami’s offense had trouble moving the ball for most of the first half. The Dolphins managed just 33 total net yards on their first five possessions. --The Dolphins didn’t get on the scoreboard until 9:35 left in the third quarter on a 34-yard field goal by Caleb Sturgis.
--C.J. Spiller boosted Buffalo’s lead to 13 with a 102-yard kick return for a touchdown in the third quarter.
--Miami responded with their first touchdown of the day when Ryan Tannehill got help on a one-handed grab by Mike Wallace for a seven-yard scoring play with 3:15 left in the third (16-10).
 --Sammy Watkins on his sixth catch of the day converted a 3rd-and-6 from the Miami 12 into a touchdown on a crossing route. Watkins stretched for the pylon as he was shoved out of bounds to score at the end of the third quarter (23-10).
--Dan Carpenter hit his fourth field goal of the game with 10 minutes left and followed with his fifth of the game with under two minutes to cap the scoring.
Stat lines
--In the first half of Sunday’s game the Bills took Miami QB Ryan Tannehill down three times for sacks. Tannehill was sacked a total of four times in the game.
--EJ Manuel finished the day 16 for 26 passing for 202 yards and a touchdown good for a passer rating of 98.6.
--Sammy Watkins had eight catches for 117 yards and a touchdown. He became the first rookie receiver for the Bills to post a 100-yard receiving day since Lee Evans did it against Cincinnati on Dec. 19, 2004.
--Corey Graham turned in another strong day at cornerback with eight tackles and three pass breakups.
--Preston Brown led the team with 12 tackles.
Subplots:
--The Bills made it a point to get Sammy Watkins involved early. By halftime he had five catches for 89 yards, but it was clear his ailing ribs were still very tender as he stepped out for plays here and there.
--Boobie Dixon blocked a first quarter punt marking the first blocked punt for the Bills since Sept. 17, 2003 when Coy Wire blocked a punt against the Dolphins.
--Corey Graham and Stephon Gilmore were the starting cornerbacks Sunday, but Leodis McKelvin rotated in during the game, replacing both Gilmore and Graham for series. McKelvin recorded his first interception of the season with 10 seconds left in the game.
--Buffalo’s defensive linemen had three batted passes in the game for incompletions.

--Miami RB Knowshon Moreno left the game after his first carry with an elbow injury and did not return.

--Dan Carpenter, coming off an 11-point day in Week 1, had 17 points in the victory with five field goals and a pair of extra points.
Inactives:
CB Ross Cockrell, RB Bryce Brown, S Jonathan Meeks, LB Keith Rivers, G Cyril Richardson, OT Cyrus Kouandjio, TE Lee Smith.
Up Next:
The Bills will host the San Diego Chargers on Sunday Sept. 21 at 1 p.m.

Wilson trust reaches definitive agreement with Pegula family

Posted Sep 9, 2014

Subject to the approval of NFL owners, the agreement calls for the Pegula family to acquire all interest in the Buffalo Bills franchise from the Wilson trust.


The process for the sale of the Buffalo Bills has taken a significant step forward today as a definitive agreement has been reached between the trust of the late Pro Football Hall of Famer Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. and the Pegula family, owners of the Buffalo Sabres and lead developers of Buffalo’s HarborCenter. Subject to the approval of the NFL owners and the satisfaction of customary closing conditions, the definitive agreement calls for the Pegula family to acquire all of the interest in the Buffalo Bills franchise from the Wilson trust. The parties intend to submit the agreement for approval by the NFL owners at their meeting in New York City on October 8.
Buffalo Bills Controlling Owner Mary Wilson said, “This is a very important day in the history of the Buffalo Bills franchise. Ralph brought professional football to Buffalo in 1959 and it was his life’s passion. He loved his team and he cherished the fans and his legacy will remain for all-time. Ralph would have been pleased with the sale of the team to the Terry Pegula family, who has been so committed to Buffalo and the Western New York region.”
“I sincerely wish Terry and Kim Pegula all the best with the Buffalo Bills and I’m happy for all Bills fans. Our hope is that this great franchise brings them as much excitement and joy as it did for Ralph and that they bring home a Super Bowl championship for Bills fans everywhere. Go Bills!”

STATEMENT BY TERRY PEGULA

“Kim and I are humbled and honored that the Wilson family has chosen us to be the second owner of the Buffalo Bills. Pending the NFL approval process, being the next owner of the Buffalo Bills would be a great privilege for our family. Ralph Wilson left an indelible mark on our community and we will strive every day to honor his legacy.
Our interest in owning the Bills has everything to do with the people of Western New York and our passion for football. We have knowledgeable, dedicated fans here and along with our ownership of the Buffalo Sabres, it is gratifying to reassure these great fans that two franchises so important to our region are both here to stay.
We are grateful to Senator Chuck Schumer and Governor Andrew Cuomo for their support and desire to keep our Bills in Western New York where they belong and to our team of professional advisors at Allen & Company and Sherrard, German & Kelly. We would also like to thank the staffs of the NFL and the Bills for helping to guide us through the sale process. We now look ahead to the NFL review process in accordance with League policy. If awarded final approval, we will be driven to achieve a singular goal: To win a Super Bowl for our fans.
Out of respect for the continuing sale process, until League approval is attained, we will have no further comment.”

The Bills-Dolphins rivalry is well-chronicled, but buffalobills.com unearthed 10 things you may not know about this historic matchup.


The Bills-Dolphins AFC East rivalry has had its ebbs and flows over the years. It was perhaps at its most intense during the Kelly-Marino years, but that shouldn’t take away from the other intra-division battles that have come to define the series. Here now however, are some of the lesser-known facts about this storied rivalry.

10. The Bills once wore Dolphins helmets


In Week 3 of the 1978 season the Bills traveled to Miami to take on the Dolphins. Miami’s winning streak against Buffalo was alive and well at the time, but the team had a bigger problem on their hands come Sunday morning.
The equipment staff had hung helmets and shoulder pads in all the locker stalls Saturday night before and had the Orange Bowl security staff lock up the visiting locker room for the night. When the equipment staff returned early the next morning 13 helmets were gone. The staff had to borrow plain white helmets from Miami’s equipment staff. Buffalo’s staff then put Bills decals and striping on the Dolphins’ helmets for their players to wear in the game. Buffalo lost the game 31-24.

9. Closest game of Miami’s perfect season? Buffalo.


During the Miami Dolphins perfect season in 1972 the Bills came closest to ending the streak when they came within a point of the Dolphins in a 24-23 loss in Week 6 (pictured). The game was tight throughout as the Bills forced four turnovers. Jim Braxton caught a six-yard touchdown pass Mike Taliaferro in the fourth quarter to pull Buffalo to within two points (24-22), but the two-point conversion did not exist in the NFL at the time. So the Bills kicked the extra point and still trailed by one and the game ended 24-23.

8. Round 2: Cox vs. Gardner


Everyone remembers Dolphins LB Bryan Cox’s famous double barrel salute to Bills fans in Orchard Park before a Bills-Dolphins game in 1995 as well as his spitting in the direction of fans who were heckling him. What many don’t remember is after Cox and Bills’ FB Carwell Gardner were both ejected for fighting during the game, there was almost a round two in the tunnel between the two locker rooms.
Gardner tried repeatedly to get in the Dolphins locker room to fight Cox again and even hung around long enough after the game trying to bait Cox to come off the Miami team bus to fight him a second time. Cox did not oblige.
Cox was fined a total of $17,500 by the league, the largest NFL fine of the 1995 season. Gardner incurred a total of $15,000 in fines. The Bills won the game 23-20.

7. No hair spray


In the first matchup since the 1998 AFC Wild Card playoff loss to Miami the Bills had revenge on their minds after the bitter playoff 24-17 postseason defeat, which included then Dolphins head coach Jimmy Johnson destroying a box of Flutie Flakes in Miami’s jubilant postgame locker room.
Buffalo won the Monday night game in Miami 23-18 thanks in large part to interceptions by John Holecek and Kurt Schulz and a 59-yard fumble return by Gabe Northern. After the game head coach Wade Phillips admitted it was an exuberant Bills locker room following the win. Remembering Johnson’s Flutie Flakes charade the previous January, Phillips had one of his trademark quips in reference to the Miami coach’s immovable hair.
"I didn't go in and stomp on a can of hair spray,'' Phillips said, "But I was excited about winning.”

6. Miami would not lease Mr. Wilson the Orange Bowl.


When awarded an AFL franchise Bills in 1959, founder and owner Ralph Wilson considered Miami as the destination for his new football club. He wanted to set up a lease agreement with the Orange Bowl, but could strike a deal. Wilson finally decided on Buffalo for his fledgling AFL team. Miami would not get a pro football team until 1966.

5. Moulds’ 240


The most dominant game in Eric Moulds’ career came in the 1998 AFC Wild Card playoff game between the Bills and Dolphins in Miami. The receiver’s day got off to a magnificent start when Doug Flutie hit him on the first play of the game, which he took 65 yards downfield. He was headed for the end zone, but was stripped of the ball from behind at the 18-yard line. It was one of five turnovers by Buffalo in a painful 24-17 loss. But Moulds would finish with 240 receiving yards on just nine catches and a touchdown, which still stands as the most receiving yards in a playoff game in NFL history.

4. Kelly’s TD run was supposed to be a pass.


Jim Kelly’s memorable last second touchdown run to win their Week 1 opener at Miami in 1989 was a pass play in the huddle. After getting up to the line of scrimmage both he and Thurman Thomas saw it was an overload blitz on the right side of Buffalo’s formation. Before the snap Kelly decided he would run to the open side. He and Thomas gave each other a look pre-snap so Kelly knew Thomas was prepared to block for him on the play. His two-yard run on first and goal won the game as time expired (27-24).

3. Strip steaks and stone crab.


Now both Hall of Famers and long retired, Jim Kelly and Dan Marino have an annual wager based on the outcome of the Bills-Dolphins games. If the Dolphins sweep the season series from the Bills, Kelly would owe Marino strip steaks. If the Bills swept the Dolphins, Marino would owe Kelly stone crab.
That wager was most recently honored by Marino after Buffalo’s season sweep of Miami last season. When Marino visited Kelly in New York City at the hospital the former Dolphins QB brought Kelly his stone crab.

2. Keeping the rivalry alive

With the addition of the expansion Houston Texans in 2002 the NFL was enacting a realignment plan with eight divisions consisting of four teams each. There was a proposal on the table to move the Bills to a new AFC North division, but owner Ralph Wilson wanted to keep the Buffalo-Miami rivalry intact. In the end Wilson successfully kept the Bills in the AFC East to maintain two meetings with the Dolphins each season.

1. Last second screen


Heading into their third straight AFC title game the Bills had to face the Miami Dolphins for the right to go to their third consecutive Super Bowl. The Friday before the game offensive coordinator Tom Breshnahan saw a flaw in Miami’s defense that would allow for a very productive screen game for Buffalo’s attack. He noticed that on every single pass play DE Marco Coleman would blindly run up field. Breshnahan added a package of screen plays to the game plan on Saturday and Thurman Thomas and Kenny Davis rolled up the yards on Sunday.
The duo finished with nine catches for 122 yards and a touchdown in a 29-10 rout of the Dolphins earning a trip to Super Bowl XXVII.

13 September 2014

POLITICAL MOJO FROM MOTHER JONES 12SEP14

POLITICAL MOJO FROM DAVID CORN, KEVIN DRUM, AND THE NEWS TEAM

MOTHER JONES
September 12, 2014

TOP STORY
By Mother Jones
Independent, nonprofit Mother Jones leads the rest of the media in smart political reporting and analysis. That's why we've won seven National Magazine Awards, and why political journalist Dave Weigel said that "the power of the Mother Jones scoop machine is immense and shows no signs of diminishing."

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IN OTHER NEWS
By David Corn
Here is President Barack Obama's challenge: how to unleash the dogs of war without having them run wild.
This dilemma applies to both the political and policy considerations Obama faces as he expands US military action in Iraq (and possibly Syria) to counter ISIS, the militant and murderous outfit that now calls itself the Islamic State and controls territory in northern Iraq and eastern Syria. [READ MORE]


THIS WEEK'S NEWS ROUNDUP
As the US waited for the president's word on ISIS, liberal Democrats were divided on further military action. On Wednesday night, Obama delivered a speech stressing a united international coalition to defeat the "terrorist threat." Meanwhile, Ebola is ravaging Africa to the point that Republicans say they will back more funds to fight it. Netflix, Tumblr, and others participated in an internet slowdown day. Mother Jones learned that practically every person killed by a police officer is a "criminal," according to the FBI. Meanwhile, in Pennsylvania, Democratic gubernatorial candidate Tom Wolf vows not to support an extreme abortion bill if elected. And former George Washington president Stephen Trachtenburg had a testy email exchange with an alleged rape victim over his recent controversial comments about campus sexual assault. [READ MORE]




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Украина: Мир нарушен плотины; Россия посылает Convoy новой помощи и Другой России Конвой Входит Украину фоне возобновления боевых 13SEP14

Путин продолжает свои нарушения международного права с российскими экскурсий в Украине, снова под видом «гуманитарной помощи» конвоев в то время как пророссийские украинские повстанцы продолжают нарушать перемирие с нападений правительственных сил Украины. Расширенные санкции против России и повстанцы хорошая новость, и более, необходимо будет ввести, пока они продолжают нарушать перемирие. Если русский народ должен страдать из-за действия своего правительства так и будет. Если они набраться смелости, чтобы бросить вызов их фашистского диктатора и остановить его агрессию против своих суверенных соседей затем санкции могут быть сняты и народом единой Украины и России может ладить с жизнью в мире, который я считаю, что большинство как народы хотят. От + NPR со ссылкой на их охвата войны в Украине и от + The Huffington Post  .
Колонна российских грузовиков пересекает украинскую границу в Донецк-Изварино таможенного контроля контрольно-пропускного пункта, как украинские беженцы смотреть, суббота.  Россия говорит, что грузовики несете помощь;  Украинские чиновники говорят, что они не знают, что находится внутри.
Колонна российских грузовиков пересекает украинскую границу в Донецк-Изварино таможенного контроля контрольно-пропускного пункта, как украинские беженцы смотреть, суббота. Россия говорит, что грузовики несете помощь; Украинские чиновники говорят, что они не знают, что находится внутри.
СЕРГЕЙ Венявский / AFP / Getty Images
Rocket огонь испытания - но не сломать - недельного возраста прекращении огня между Украиной и пророссийских сепаратистов в пятницу вечером. Сделка принесла освобождение десятков заключенных и сократить количество жертв от боевых действий, даже в обе стороны, как сообщается, нарушил свои правила в стычках.
Россия направила вторую колонну грузовиков, несущих, по ее словам гуманитарная помощь в Украину. Подобно операции августа ни Украина, ни Красный Крест якобы получил раннее предупреждение о грузовиках, и AP говорит они пересекли границу без проверены.
представитель украинской обороны Андрей Лысенко назвал конвой "нарушение установленного порядка границе и таможенное оформление ", в соответствии с Украины агентства Интерфакс . Он также добавил, что "Представители Красного Креста не сопровождают груз, его содержание неизвестны."
Инцидент стало повстанцы развернули свежий приступ около аэропорта в Донецке, который находится под контролем центрального правительства.
Из Донецка, Элеоноры NPR, Бердсли сообщает:
"Залпы Градов раздался в ночь пятницы на субботу в сепаратистской оплота Донецке, подчеркивая трудности соблюдения режима прекращения огня через неделю после его подписания. Позже, сепаратистские военные грузовики были замечены за рулем по городу, перевозящего ракетные установки.
"Тем не менее, 67 заключенных были освобождены в обмен между украинской армии и сепаратистов в пятницу, доказывая, что другие пункты соглашения о прекращении огня в настоящее время придерживался.
"Несмотря на прогресс, США и Европейский союз ударил по России с жесткими новых санкций это неделе в скоординированного ответа на то, что они сказали, было Москвы 'неприемлемое поведение "в Украине. России обвиняется в поддержке сепаратистов оружием и бойцов".
Переговоры о более постоянного мира продолжаются. А в пятницу, ЕС объявил о достижении компромисса по его плана по расширению торгового партнерства с Украиной, которая с тревогой российских лидеров. Новое соглашение не откладывает реализацию полное фирменное пакта до 2016 года, в Украине Kyiv Post сообщает.
лидером в Украине раскритиковал Президент России Владимир Путин в субботу, называя его угрозу Украине и Европе.
"заявил премьер-министр Арсений Яценюк только членство в НАТО позволит Украине защитить себя от внешней агрессии, " сообщает Reuters .

Другой русский Конвой Входит Украину фоне возобновления боевых действий

Добавлено: Обновлено:
УКРАИНА
Луганск, Украина (AP) - конвой из более чем 200 белых грузовиков пересекли российскую границу для доставки гуманитарной помощи в потрепанной украинском городе в субботу, шаг сделаны без согласия Киева еще встретился с молчанием высших руководителей Украины.
"В начале утром мы въехали в Украину, чтобы оказать помощь в Луганске ", сказал Юрий Степанов, русский, наблюдал за конвой. "Мы пришли в около 215 автомобилей", добавил он, как рабочие разгрузили ящики в местном складе.
столь необходимую помощь прибыла, как бои вспыхнули снова между пророссийскими повстанцами и правительственными силами, в дальнейшем под угрозу и без того хрупкое перемирие в область.
В субботу, военная операция в Украине на востоке сказал он отразил нападение повстанцев на располагают органы власти, аэропорту Донецка, который попал под артиллерийский огонь с позиций повстанцев поздно вечером в пятницу. Украинские власти также допущенные в первый раз с момента прекращения огня началось на прошлой неделе, что они причинили потери на стороне повстанцев.
Непрерывный ракетный обстрел можно было услышать на ночь в Донецке. Заявление на веб-сайте городского совета заявил, что снаряды попали жилые здания рядом с аэропортом, хотя не были потерь нет. Колонна из трех Град ракетные установки - все его ракеты еще в месте - был замечен свободно проходя сквозь повстанцами города в субботу утром.
В другой региональной столицы Луганске, одном из наиболее пострадавших городов, где десятки тысяч были без воды, электричества, или телефонных соединений в течение многих недель, на улицах было спокойно, как российские водители выгружается пакеты помощи в местных складов.
Степанов сказал товары состояла в основном из продуктов питания - риса, сахара, и рыбные консервы и говядины - но также включены лекарства, техническая оборудование и одежда. Поставки были в закрытых коробках, достаточно малы, чтобы быть легко переносятся одним человеком, но рис был увидеть его свисающим из разбитого мешок.
Внутри склада, Associated Press журналист увидел бутылки с водой, несущие эмблему партии ЛДПР России, во главе с вирулентным националиста . Владимир Жириновский
. Пока десятки местных работников выгруженные ящики, несколько вагонов вооруженных милиционеров в камуфляже приехали осмотреть место
Степанов сказал, что его группа была ответственна только за доставку и распределение будет осуществляться местными органами власти, - которые на данный момент означает лидерам сепаратистов из самопровозглашенной Луганской Народная Республика.
Геннадий Цепкало, старший сепаратистского чиновника, сказал пенсионеры, больничные пациенты и школьники будут приоритетными для помощи. Он сказал, что еда не будет использоваться, чтобы накормить бойцов повстанческих.
"Милиция будет кормить себя отдельно. Это для жителей Луганской Народной Республики", сказал Цепкало.
Луганская показывает глубокие шрамы неудачной, недели длиной обстрелов кампании от правительственные войска. Правительство восстановила растущих массивов территории от сепаратистов в течение нескольких недель, но главным бунтарем контрнаступление начиная с конца августа остановить и обратить вспять эту тенденцию.
Сам Луганск был в одной точке почти полностью окруженный правительственными войсками. Эти силы уже отказались многие из своих прежних позиций.
Как российские грузовики поехали обратно вдоль границы в отношении Украины, боевики вдоль дороги кулаками воздух и помахал в приветствии.
На пограничном пункте Изварине, линии автомобилей, которая простиралась на несколько километров был заполнен беженцами, которые бежали в Россию, но на короткое время вернулся в прекращении огня, чтобы захватить все предметы домашнего обихода, они могли.
соглашение августа между Россией, Украиной и международного Красного Креста позволило Москве оказать помощь в регион, тех пор, пока все транспортные средства были проверены украинскими пограничниками и сопровождении МККК. После двух недель ожидания на границе для всех сторон договориться, Россия направила груз через границу без согласия Киева.
Организации по безопасности и сотрудничеству в миссии наблюдателей в Европе на границу России и Украины заявил в субботу, что 220 грузовиков пересекают в Украине, ни один из которых не были проверены украинской стороны или в сопровождении МККК.
"Мы не были официально уведомлены о договоренности между Москвой и Киевом, чтобы отправить груз," Галина Balzamova, представитель московского офиса МККК, заявил в субботу.
русский МЧС, которые согласованы предыдущие поставки гуманитарной помощи в Украину, не может быть достигнуто за комментарий.
полковник Андрей Лысенко, пресс-секретарь национальной безопасности и обороны Совета Украины, сообщил журналистам в субботу, что шаг России на территорию Украины было "незаконным".
Но молчание высших руководителей Украины ознаменовало собой радикальный сдвиг в Киеве. В августе, когда Россия направила колонну грузовиков через границу, не дожидаясь одобрения Киева или надзора со стороны МККК, украинские чиновники быстро осудили то, что они называют вторжение в Украине. В субботу, ни одно высокопоставленное украинский лидер не упомянул последнюю доставку России вообще.
украинский президент Петр Порошенко был при болях доказать, что соглашение о прекращении огня дало результатов на местах в восточной Украине. В пятницу он похвалил соглашение, которое было пронизана нарушениями, так как это был наложен на прошлой неделе, как "хрупкой, но эффективного мирного процесса." Разрешение более гуманитарная помощь в регионе был одним из компонентов 12-балльной сделки в.
___
Миллс сообщили из Киева, Украина. Наталья Васильева в Москве способствовали отчетности.